The Tipping Point By Malcolm Gladwell
Chapter: The Law of the Few
Milgram.S, 1967, Psychology Today Vol.1, pp.60-67 (Page 34): A chain letter, which was used to see how we were all connected. In the experiment, the letters that managed to reach the stockbroker, it was apparent that it only took 5 or 6 steps/people. This is where we get the idea of six degrees of separation. It showed that the majority of the letters were sent lastly to the stockbroker by a few of the same people, these are whom are thought to be connectors.
Werner. C, Parmelee. P, 1979, Social Psychology Quarterly,m Vol 42, no.I, pp62-66 (Page 35): This study showed that people were usually closest to someone that lived near their proximity. However it is usually generally thought that most people tend to be friends with people nearer their own age and race, but this study showed these aspects are a lot less important than has previously been assumed.
Granovetter Mark, 1995, University of Chicago Press (Page 53): Showing how it depends more on who you know rather than what you know, in enabling you to get yourself a job. It also proves a good point that having many aquintances (I.e being a connector) can have many useful advantages.
Inman Jeffery. J, McAlister Leigh, Hoyer. D. Wayne, 1990, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 17, pp-74-81. (Page 60): In a supermarket, they could just keep rising their prices but the reason they don’t is because of the “Market Mavens” who keep a close eye on the prices and details of things and notice if something isn’t quite right and would do something about it, I.e. like complain to the manger and/or tell all their friends and acquaintances to not go to that particular supermarket.
Feick. F. L, Price. L. L, 1987, Journal of Marketing, Vol.51, pp.83-97(Page 61): This shows the obsession of a Maven to get the best deal on whatever the item maybe, in this instance it is cans of coffee, but it could be anything.
Mullen. B, Et Al, 1986, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, pp. 219 -230. (Page 74): This showed how when a news caster reported on an election, how their facial expresion could be biased and could probably change the voting behaviour of the public.
Wells. L. G, Petty. E. R, 1980, Basic and applied Social psychology, Vol. I, No3, pp. 53-76. (Page 77): This experiment was to do with head shaking movements whilst wearing headphones and listening to radio editorial affecting your opinion on a subject matter. In this particular experiment it involved how much undergraduate tuition per year. There were 3 groups involved, the control group, a group that had to shake their heads up and down and another group that had to move their head side to side. The group that moved their heads from side to side strongly disagreed with what was being said. And the group that had to move their heads up and down strongly agreed with what was being said.
Condon. S. W, 1982, Interaction Rhythms: Periodicity in Communicative Behaviour, New York: Human Sciences Press, pp. 53-76. (Page 81): This was a study of a film which last 4.5 seconds. After a year and half it he discovered that whilst having the conversation the people moved simultaneously as people were talking and listening. This is known as “interactional synchrony”
Hatfield. E, Cacioppo. T. J, Rapson. L. R, 1994, Emotional Contagion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Page 84): This shows that we tend to emulate each others responses to situations to show a sense of empathy.
Friedman. H, Riggio, 1981, Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour, Vol.6, pp.96-104. (Page 86) :This shows us that emotion from a charismatic person can be contagious and can transfer their good mood onto someone who is inexpressive/depressed just by being in the room with them for 2 minutes not saying a word. But this test did not work the other way around. E.g inexpressive person can not transfer their mood upon a charismatic person.